The amount of heat that may be transferred from hot to cold depends upon the difference in the temperature, nature of the substance and the mass of the object. If two objects are made of the same substance and have the same temperature, the one with more mass will transfer more heat. Three different lead fishing weights were heated in hot water to the same temperature (same average kinetic energy per particle). The more mass the weight had the more heat it transferred to cold water in a Styrofoam cup. The only difference was the mass of the weights; this is the independent variable. The weights were all composed of lead particles and heated to the same temperature in hot water. In addition they all had the same shape and were added to the same volume of water. These are the controlled variable- kept the same so that the only difference is the mass. The initial and final temperature of the water in Styrofoam cups was measured in order to calculate the heat transferred (q = mC ΔT) to the water in the styrofoam cup. The heat transfer is the dependent variable.  Since the only difference was the mass, the difference in heat transfer must be due to the mass. More mass must transfer more heat. More mass of the same substance must also have more particles. The heat transfer depends upon the temperature (average kinetic energy per particle) and the mass (the number of particles).